Summary Eesti Loodus 2013/08

 Summary

How to recognize an insect. I

Mati Martin proposes some clues for navigating among the billions of insect species of the world. First, the author gives some insight into the complicated systematic of bugs. On a large scale, insects are classified into wingless insects, known as Apterygota, and winged insects: Paleoptera and Neoptera. In the current article, the four oldest orders of insects, called Apterygota, are introduced: Collembola, Protura, Diplura, and Thysanura. All these are small insects with a hidden lifestyle and thin skin. .The numerous and abundant close-up photographs prefigure an exciting acquitance with the diverse world of insects.

 

Why does a goat sneeze?

Inga Jõgisalu describes interesting parasite insects from the genus Cephenemyia (Oestridae), order of Diptera. As their name deer botfly (also deer nose) refers, the larvae of the species develop in the nose cavities of deer, elks or roe deer. The appearance of grown-up deer botflies reminds bumblebees. Botflies also remind mammals, as they give birth to their larvae. The larvae are deposited in the eye or nose area of the host animal, where they stay from a few days to a few months, depending on the species. The article describes the life-cycle of the parasites, and the impacts on host animals.

 

A captivating and destroying natural phenomenon

Jüri Kamenik gives an overview of the essence, genesis and impacts of lightning and thunderstorm in our climate. Normally, the formation of large vertical convection clouds is a prerequisite for a thunderstorm. The whole development process lasts for many hours, but the stage of maximum development lasts for about an hour, accompanied by lightning and thunder. The detailed article explains how different types of clouds form thunderstorms, as well as how lightening is formed.

 

Estonian Nature enquires

Tiit Paaver writes about the possible impact of grass carps to Estonian nature.

Kadri Võrel explains how to act when a bird has hit the window.

 

The failure of last year’s mushroom yield at Lääne County

Tõnu Ploompuu reckons over the reasons behind last year’s mushroom yield fail: even though there was plenty of rainfall and the ground remained moist, the fruiting bodies of mushrooms did not develop well. It can be concluded that there was too little air in the soil, as the mycelium needs to breathe, just as do the plant roots. The author notes that relations between mushroom growth and weather conditions are, however, little studied.

 

Interview: First you try for a few years and then you’ll catch some fish

Rainer Kerge has interviewed Gennadi Skromnov, the founder of portals Ilm.ee and Looduskalender.ee, the prize winner of Kumari nature protection prize in 2013.

 

Weather on pärtlipäev (Bartholomew’s Day)

Mait Sepp tries to figure out the meaning of pärtlipäev (August 24) in folk tradition and if the weather is really always stormy on that day, as it was believed in folk tradition. The period of pärtlipäev lasts from August 10 until September 7, but the research shows that this period has not been especially stormy, at least not during last 50 years. The author suggests that the traditions related to pärtlipäev have largely been a loan from German nations, who believed that summer always ends with a heavy storm of pärtlipäev.

 

The traces of lime, tar and coal production in landscape

Lembitu Tarang, Triin Kusmin and Jürgen Kusmin continue the series of articles about heritage culture, focusing on important industrial activities. Lime, tar and coal production are part of forest heritage culture, as these activities required large amounts of timber. The most influential of these was lime production, especially in limestone-rich areas, such as North- and West-Estonia.

 

The growth of a common goldeneye family

Jaanus Järva has observed and photographed the development of the offspring of a goldeneye couple on a farm pond. The mother of four moved to a farm pond, thus enabling us to make close observations about the everyday life of this otherwise timid bird species. During daytime, the mother left the youth on their own to practice diving and resting, but also cleaning the plumage. Wonderful photographs illustrate well all these important activities.

 

Protected area: The species-rich flooded meadows of Kärevere

Leevi Krumm and Mariliis Märtson take the reader to Kärevere, near the Tallinn-Tartu road, where a nature protection area has been founded in order to protect flooded meadows and species-rich forests, which offer valuable habitats for many rare bird species. The area comprises of five separate areas and covers 1789 ha. There are two hiking trails at the nature protection area: 14 km and 5.2 km.