Summary Eesti Loodus 2013/12

 Summary

Red deer in Estonia and elsewhere

Karl Ligi describes a relatively new species of our fauna – the red deer – who can more frequently be met on the western islands and in southwestern Estonia.  The author gives an overview of the biology, reproduction, and menu, area of distribution, enemies and lifeways. Red deer has inhabited Estonia during warmer climate stadiums, and was reintroduced in 1927, when a couple was brought to the Abruka Island. There were several later attempts to reintroduce the species, especially on the islands. It can be predicted that in 30-40 years the red deer can be seen everywhere in Estonia.

 

The fauna of Karula national park

Tarmo Evestus writes an opening article of the series dedicated to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the Karula national park. The first article covers the fauna of the park. The fauna of the park is well studied. The faun includes over 500 species of insects, 22 species of fish, 7 species of amphibians, 5 species of reptiles, 159 species of birds and 42 species of mammals. Noteworthy species are black stork, osprey, medicinal leech, crayfish, common spadefoot and sand lizard.

 

Estonian Nature enquires

Ena Poltimäe looks at the Karula national park from the point of view of the Environmental Board.

Olivia Till and Lilian Freiberg discuss the future of the park from the point of view of the Karula Protection Society.

 

As a nature guard in Karula national park

Mati Urbanik recalls his years spent in the service of the national park: his duties included noticing violations, helping hurt animals, taking care of visitor infrastructure, writing project proposals and guiding the guests. The most serious challenges were predatory fishing, forest fires and dump disposal. The nice aspects of the job included species protection projects.

 

Small green blossoms between the dome hills of Karula

Tiiu Kull praises four small modest-looking orchid species, which can easily be unnoticed: Malaxis monophyllus, Hammarbya paludosa, Liparis loeselii and Listera cordata. Three of the species are related to paludified areas, the latter inhabits forests.

 

Tarupettäi, the newsletter of the national park

Tiia Trolla gives an overview of the history and the present of the newsletter of the Karula national park. The newsletter was started in 1999 to inform the people living on the territory of the park about ongoing and planned activities, and to introduce values related to the park.

 

Troubles with the Estonian record trout or fishing and fibbing go hand in hand

Kalle Kroon has done some research, based on media and other sources, to find out the actual weight of the largest trout caught from Estonian waters. In October, the magazine published a photo of August Mölder with his catch, a salmon weighing 37.750 kg (1934). It appears that the actual size of the fish was about a third smaller than known up till now: 26 kg, and the length of the fish was 162 cm. The record salmon has weighed 32 kg and was caught in 1935 by August Mölder, too. The author considers reasons for spreading such a lie in media in 1930ies.

 

The 14th photo contest of „Estonian Nature“

List of winners and best shots.

 

Interview: Karula national park: the best example of a lifestyle

Toomas Kukk has interviewed Pille Tomson, the first, but also the last director of the Karula national park.

 

Forest heritage culture

Lembitu Tverdjanski, Triin Kusmin and Jürgen Kusmin close the series of articles of the heritage culture year by looking for traces in forestry: division lines between forest compartments, planted forest cultures, drainage works, and place names.

 

Memories from last winter / Waiting for the first snow

Ragnis Pärnamets provides an opportunity to recall how the winter arrived a year ago. Last winter was long and beautiful, offering breathtaking views and Northern lights – all captured on author’s lovely photographs and in his memories.

 

Climate and witch hunts

Aarne Ruben, a historian, describes the relations between climate and witches: several people have had to give up their lives because of climate changes. It is now well known that the Northern hemisphere experienced a “Little Ice Age” from the 14th century until 19th century. Natural disasters and illnesses devastated the people and they needed someone to be condemned. The author brings interesting examples from Estonia, where also many people were found guilty for various troubles, and executed.