Summary Eesti Loodus 2014/08

 Summary

Getting acquainted with snails

Liina Remm introduces snails –a very species-numerous group of Animalia. The number of terrestrial snails in Estonia is about 85, and about 40 species living in water bodies. The number of snail species in the world is about 35 000. The author takes a look at how snails move and live, and elaborates on the importance of slime. It is interesting that snails are especially interested in eating cultural plants, and the author explains the reasons for that, and the rest of the diet of snails.

 

Karst phenomena on the planned Nabala nature protection area

Leo Vallner explains the nature of karst phenomena and gives a thorough overview of different karst phenomena in the territory of the planned protected area. The typical phenomena include karst funnels, caves, springs, spring fens and karst lakes. Several maps and diagrams illustrate the location of karst fields and the related phenomena of the Nabala area.

 

Estonian Nature enquires

Ainike Nõmmisto writes about African swine fever and its possible danger to wild boar.

 

Popular, yet unknown rainbow

Jüri Kamenik explains the essence of rainbow – an optic phenomenon that goes together with summer rain and other waterdrops –, and its causes and shapes. The author explains how rainbows are formed, and which conditions need to be required for the formation of a rainbow. The different forms of rainbows can be quite surprising. In addition to daytime rainbows, which often have double or multiple bows and are related to rainfall and sunlight, there are also fogbows, cloudbows and rainbows under moonlight.

 

Kirikuraba nature protection area

Reigo Roasto takes the reader to the border of Puurmani and Tabivere rural municipalities at Jõgeva County. The newly founded nature protection area is designated to preserve forest and bog communities as well as the habitats of capercaillie and goshawk, which were the incentives for creating the protected area in 2013.

 

Tiit Kändler’s essay: This wonderful brushwood

 

Interview: How a species-rich flower meadow has become a green desert

Rainer Kerge has interviewed Jaan Kaplinski, a writer, poet and philosopher.

 

How to recognize an insect VII. Hymenopterans

Mati Martin describes a group of insects consisting of about 125 000 – 250 000 species, 7000 species of them live in Estonia. The best known of these insects are ants, wasps and bees. Hymenopterans include a large number of very different and unique species. Many of the species lack wings, but those who do, always have a set of two pairs. The best known suborders are Symphyta, Apocrita and Formicidae. The suborder Symphyta includes the sawflies, horntails, and parasitic wood wasps. The group may be paraphyletic, as it has been suggested that the family Orussidae may be the group from which the Apocrita arose. The wasps, bees, and ants together make up the suborder Apocrita, characterized by a constriction between the first and second abdominal segments called a wasp-waist, also involving the fusion of the first abdominal segment to the horax. As always, the article of the series is equipped with numerous explanatory pictures presenting the diversity of the group.

 

Haltia, Finland’s most modern nature center

Peep Tobreluts shares his impressions from a nature center in Finland, which should be regarded as a fine example when founding our own nature centers. The Haltia nature center is designated to function as a gate guiding the guests to different protected areas, their peculiarities and hiking trails. The center is located 30 km from Helsingi, at the Nuuksio national park. The center has a large number of interactive attractions, but its main idea is to guide people to go outside, to real number. The center also offers environmental education programs with noteworthy equipment.

 

Interesting Estonia: A look-out tower on top of Estonia’s highest hill

Katre Palo opens up a new heading with the history of the look-out tower at Suur Munamägi Hill. The early history of towers on the hill is not clear, but there must have been a over already in 1816–1819, when Fr. G. W. Struve was conducting his geodetic surveying. There have been at least 6 different towers on top of the Estonia’s highest hill (317.2 m). As the current tower is 29 m high, one can reach as high as 346 meters above sea level.