Summary Eesti Loodus 2016/5

Butterfly of the year: Clouded Apollo butterfly (Parnassius Mnemosyne)
Allan Selin gives an overview of the clouded Apollo, an endangered and protected butterfly species of Estonia and Europe.

Why did the Clouded Apollo butterfly disappear from the island of Saaremaa?
Teet Ruben and Jaan Viidalepp look at the reasons why the subspecies the Clouded Apollo of Saaremaa – Parnassius mnemosyne osiliensis – has disappeared from Saaremaa, although there are plenty of Corydalis solida, which form the dietary basis for the Apollo caterpillars.

The habitat and distribution of clouded Apollo in Estonia
Valdo Kuusemets, Kadri Kask, Ave Liivamägi and Jaan Luig describe the habitat requirements of the butterfly of the year: the species is spreading quite fast and apparently likes it here.

Professor Elmar Leppik on herbicides, bees and floral evolution
Ken Kalling looks back at the activities of the reknown Estonian mycologist and plant protection scientist Elmar Leppik after his emigration to the United States during World War II.

The garners of the Estonian collections of natural history: Elmar Leppik’s library
Kadri Pärtel introduces Elmar Leppik’s valuable library full of literature about mycology and botany. The catalogue of the library is available for everyone online.

Hasve manor parks benefitted from nature protection , or not?
Mati Laane and Rein Sander make a proposal to free manor parks from the regulations of nature protection. The article includes comments from Jaan Liira, Anneli Palo, Silja Konsa and Urve Sinijärv

Interview: Birds and nature should become familiar in childhood.
Toomas Kukk has interviewed Andres Kalamees, the director of Estonian Ornithological Society.

Practical tips: How to shoot and choose photos of mammals?
Arne Ader and Urmas Tartes share tips about how to photograph mammals, as many of them mostly move around in poor light conditions.

A location in Estonia: Arvi’s forest, a meeting place in the midst of Douglas firs
Juhani Püttsepp went to see a small forest of Douglas fir, founded by the request of his friend Arvi Vainomäe. The fir grove grows at Haaslava, south from Tartu.

Hiking trail: Ilmatsalu Bird Road
Helen Külvik suggests to take a hike along the Ilmatsalu–Kärevere Bird Road near Tartu.

The repas d’amoureux of the Okawango lions
Rein Kuresoo describes the hunting and eating habits of the lions he spotted on his trip at the Moremi nature protection area, Botswana.

Kotzebue’s journey at Alaska: The enigma of permafrost, and climate
Tiiu Speek looks back at Otto von Kotzebue’s expedition to the coast of America in 1816, where he explored the phenomenon of permafrost and discovered ice wedges.

The dusk of the asbestos era
Peeter Eek explains the hazardousness of asbestos waste and gives advice on how to get rid of such waste in an environmental-friendly way.

Tiit Kändler’s essay: Who would protect humans?

A peculiar bug from the family Reduviidae
Ave Liivamägi and Peeter Tarlap introduce the peculiar species of assassin and thread-legged bugs belonging to the family Reduviidae, subfamily Phymatinae.